Body-derived minerals, dietary minerals, are inorganic compounds needed for living things and included in micronutrients, or nutrients needed in small amounts for various normal body functions. The role of minerals, among others, is for the formation of bones and teeth, the components of enzymes, and neural activity.

Some minerals are needed in larger quantities than others, such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Other minerals are needed in smaller amounts so often called trace minerals, namely iron, zinc, iodine, fluoride, selenium, and copper. Although required in smaller quantities, trace elements are as important as other minerals.

Mineral intake is obtained from food; variations of food types will ensure the availability of sufficient mineral supplies for healthy living. Minerals from food are more efficiently absorbed than supplemental tablets.

Calcium (Ca)

Calcium is the most mineral in the body and plays an important role in a number of body functions. Calcium is needed to maintain healthy bones and teeth (together with vitamin D and other nutrients). Calcium plays a role in many metabolic processes, transmitting information through the nervous system, and muscle contraction (including the heart) as well as blood clots.

Sources of calcium are milk, cheese, and other dairy products. Calcium is also found in some green vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage and canned fish eaten with bones such as sardines.


The main function of phosphorus is the formation of a bone component called hydroxyapatite. About 80% of the phosphorus in the body is present in the form of calcium salts in the framework, making it essential for healthy healthy bone and tooth structure. In healthy adults there is a dynamic equilibrium between calcium and phosphate in continuous bone remodeling. The rest of the phosphorus is dispersed in all cells because it is required for cell membrane structures (as phospholipids) and intracellular phosphorus that play a role in a number of energy metabolism processes.

Phosphorus is commonly found in red meat, dairy products, fish, poultry, bread, rice and wheat and is usually found in foods that also contain calcium.


Magnesium is an important mineral that is present in the entire human tissue, especially bone. Magnesium has physiological and biochemical functions that coincide with calcium, potassium, and sodium. In addition, magnesium is required for the activation of different types of enzymes, including enzymes that play a role in DNA replication and RNA synthesis as well as for parathyroid hormone release, which is involved in bone metabolism. Magnesium is also needed for muscle and nerve work.

Magnesium exists in all plant and animal cells and is a mineral in chlorophyll or green leaf substance. Magnesium sources include green vegetables, nuts, bread, fish, meat and dairy products.


Sodium is responsible for the regulation of the body's water content and electrolyte balance. Control of body sodium levels depends on the balance between sodium removal and absorption in the kidney, which is governed by the nervous system and hormones. Sodium is also required for the absorption of certain nutrients and water from the intestine. Sodium is a component of a kitchen salt known as sodium chloride (NaCl).

Almost all raw foods contain small amounts of sodium chloride (salt). However, salt is often added in the manufacture, cooking and serving of food.


Potassium is important for fluid and electrolyte balance and the normal functioning of cells including nerves. Increased potassium intake lowers blood pressure because it triggers sodium loss through urine. Increased potassium intake can reduce the impact of excess sodium in the diet thus helping to maintain heart and blood vessel health.

Potassium is present in almost all foods. The main sources are fruits (especially bananas), vegetables, meat, fish, shellfish, nuts, seeds and milk. Potassium content in processed foods is usually less than fresh food.


Iron is important for the formation of hemoglobin in red blood cells; hemoglobin binds oxygen and transports it throughout the body. Iron is also an important component in the reactions of various enzymes and plays a role in the immune system. In addition, iron is required for normal energy metabolism and drug metabolism as well as foreign substances that must be removed from the body.

Iron in food comes in two forms, namely as iron haem (from animal sources) or as non-haem iron (from vegetable sources). Iron is mostly present in non-haem forms found in cereals, vegetables, nuts, and fruits. Animal sources of iron are liver, red meat, eggs, poultry, and fish.



Iodine is an important component of thyroid hormones, namely thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine, which is a regulator of the rate of metabolism, physical and mental development of humans.

The amount of iodine in plant foods such as vegetables and cereals is determined by the amount of yoidum in the environment in which the plant grows. Iodine content in soil and water also vary greatly. Foods rich in iodine are seafoods (fish, shellfish, algae), but also found in milk. In Indonesia, most of the kitchen salt is fortified with iodine.


The main function of fluroida in the body is to mineralize bones and teeth. Fluoride also protects teeth from tartar (caries) and is now often added in most toothpastes.

Fluoride is found in fluoride-treated water, tea and fish. Food only provides about 25% of total intake.


Copper is the third most metals after iron and zinc. Copper is a component of various enzymes and is needed to produce red blood cells and white blood. The body also needs copper to use iron efficiently and is thought to play an important role in infant growth, brain development, immune system development and bone strength.

Copper sources include shellfish, liver, kidney, beans and cereals.


The main function of selenium is the component of several antioxidant enzymes (such as glutathione peroxidase), thus contributing to the body's protection against oxidative damage. Selenium is also necessary for the use of iodine in the production of thyroid hormone, immune system function and reproductive function.

Selenium is found in many types of foodstuffs, especially Brazil nuts, bread, fish, meat, and eggs.


Manganese is needed for bone formation and energy metabolism. Manganese is also an antioxidant enzyme component, which helps prevent cell damage from free radicals.

Manganese is found in plant foods, such as vegetables, cereals and nuts. Tea is also a high source of manganese.


Chromium (III) is an active form of this nutrient and its main function is related to the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Chromium is thought to trigger insulin work, a hormone that controls the blood sugar.

Chrom sources include meat, beans, cereals, and yeast.

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